About Avocado Butter
- Synonyms: Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Butter, Avocado Butter
- INCI Name: Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
- CAS: 8024-32-6
- Einecs: 232-428-0
- Source: Fruit of the Avocado Tree
- Solubility: Vegetable oil, Insoluble in water
- Viscosity: Soft-solid butter at room temperature that melts on contact at skin temperature (if held above that point for extended period)
- Melting Point ° F: Melting point is about 118° F
- Saponification Value (SAP): 177 - 198 Typically
- Saponification Value (NAOH/oz): .134 Typically
- Saponification Value (KOH/oz): .188 Typically
- Storage: Cool, dark dry area, air tight container preferred
- Appearance: Light slightly off white fat
- Ingredients: Avocado oil, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
- Odor: Almost no scent.
- Natural: From natural sources
- Extraction: Oil is extracted from Avocado Fruit and blended with hydrogenated vegetable oil to product Avocado Butter
- Packaging: 1 lb and 3 lb is a single plastic resealable bag. 15 lb is 5 x 3 lb resealable bags. 55 lb is a single plastic Pail.
- Shelf life: Recommended to use within 18 months.
Usage / Benefits
- Industries: Cosmetics & Personal Care, Soap Making, Spa and Wellness, Home DIY,
- Applications: Lotions, creams, lip balms, hair conditioners, face masks, makeup products, moisturizing agent in both bar and liquid soaps, formulations for skin-healing ointments and creams, massage butters, treatments for sunburn or irritated skin, homemade skin and hair care products, balms, salves.
- Percentages: In Cold Process Soap, up to 15%, Direct Skin use 0% to 100%, melt and pour soap 1 to 2 tbs per lb of soap. Creams and lotions normally contain a minimum of at least 5% in order provide positive effects.
- Benefits: Moisturizing properties, soothing effects on irritated skin, promotes skin healing, anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidant-rich, provides relief from sunburn, supports skin elasticity, easily absorbed by the skin, non-greasy texture, suitable for all skin types, aids in reducing the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
- Products Uses: Moisturizing creams and lotions, Hand and body balms, Facial masks and serums, Lip balms and lipsticks, Hair conditioners and masks, Hair styling products (like pomades or creams), Handmade soaps, Shaving creams, Sunscreen lotions, Bath bombs, Massage creams and Oils, Nail and cuticle creams, After-sun products, Baby care products (like lotions or diaper rash creams), Eye creams, Foot creams and lotions, Treatment salves and ointments, Stretch mark creams, Exfoliating scrubs (where it provides moisturizing properties), Soap bars, Pet care products, particularly fur and skin treatments.
- Safety: Avocado Butter is generally safe, however keep out of eyes and do not eat.
- Cautions: Keep away from pets and children who may attempt to eat.
- External Use Only: Even if food grade, we do not provide items for ingestion, all of our items are for external use only.
Avocado butter also boasts remarkable anti-inflammatory properties, making it a beneficial remedy for skin conditions like sunburn, eczema, or minor abrasions. Its creamy texture and deep penetration abilities ensure that the skin doesn't just experience surface-level hydration but is moisturized profoundly, leading to lasting softness and suppleness. Furthermore, the sterolins (natural steroids) in avocado butter play a pivotal role in reducing age spots and repairing sun damage, making the skin appear more youthful and vibrant.
For those concerned about environmental factors, avocado butter serves as a natural barrier, shielding the skin from harmful UV rays and pollution. This not only prevents potential damage but also ensures that the skin maintains its natural radiance. In hair care, the butter's detangling properties come to the fore, making hair management easier and reducing breakage. Its deep conditioning nature revitalizes brittle hair, restoring its natural sheen and vitality.
The Versatile Uses of Avocado Butter
Avocado butter, derived from the flesh of the avocado fruit, has emerged as a favored ingredient in various cosmetic, culinary, and wellness sectors. With its creamy consistency, subtle aroma, and multitude of benefits, it's not hard to see why. Here's an exploration into the versatile uses of this delightful product:
1. Skincare Savior
The cosmetics industry has seen a surge in the inclusion of avocado butter in formulations, and with good reason. Rich in vitamins A, E, and D, it provides essential nutrients that foster skin healing and regeneration. These vitamins aid in combating the harmful effects of UV rays, providing a natural barrier against sun damage. Furthermore, the inherent anti-inflammatory properties of avocado butter make it an ideal solution for inflamed or irritated skin, addressing issues like sunburn, eczema, or minor cuts and abrasions.
For those battling dry, parched skin, avocado butter offers intensive hydration. Its deep moisturizing properties ensure that the skin isn't just receiving surface-level moisture but is being nourished from within, resulting in lasting softness and elasticity. Beyond mere hydration, the butter's fatty acids play a pivotal role in skin health at a cellular level, fortifying the skin's natural lipid barrier.
2. Haircare Hero
The benefits of avocado butter aren't restricted to the skin. Haircare formulations boasting this ingredient promise lustrous, strong, and healthy locks. Given its deep conditioning qualities, avocado butter is a boon for brittle or dry hair. By penetrating the hair shaft, it moisturizes from within, rejuvenating dull and lifeless strands. Its detangling properties are especially beneficial for those with curly or wavy hair, minimizing hair breakage and making styling more manageable.
For individuals with a dry or itchy scalp, regular application of products containing avocado butter can bring relief. The butter's moisturizing and nourishing properties can soothe irritation, reduce flakiness, and promote a healthy scalp environment conducive to hair growth.
3. Culinary Delight
While its prominence in the beauty sector is undeniable, avocado butter also finds its way into kitchens around the world. Given its mild taste and creamy texture, it serves as a healthier alternative to traditional butter in various dishes. It can be spread on toast, incorporated into smoothies, or even used as a base for sauces and dressings. Since it's derived from a fruit, it's cholesterol-free, making it a heart-healthy option.
4. Therapeutic Applications
Beyond culinary and cosmetic realms, avocado butter has therapeutic uses. Given its rich nutrient profile, it's often incorporated into massage creams and oils. Its creamy consistency provides an ideal medium for massages, allowing for smooth application and absorption. The vitamins and minerals in the butter can then work to rejuvenate the skin, improve circulation, and aid muscle relaxation.
5. DIY Beauty Recipes
For those who prefer homemade remedies, avocado butter offers endless possibilities. From face masks and body scrubs to hair masks and lip balms, its versatility shines. A simple face mask can be made by blending avocado butter with some honey and oatmeal, providing hydration, exfoliation, and nourishment in one go.
6. Natural UV Barrier
While it's no replacement for sunscreen, avocado butter does offer some protection against harmful UV rays, thanks to its composition. Those looking for natural alternatives or supplementary products to boost their sun protection might find avocado butter-based creams or lotions beneficial.
What is avocado butter made from?
Source and Composition
Avocado butter is primarily made from the flesh of the avocado fruit. The flesh is pressed to extract the oils and then combined with other natural ingredients to achieve a buttery consistency.
The avocado pulp is typically cold-pressed to retain its nutritional benefits. Once the oil is extracted, it's then whipped or mixed to create a semi-solid butter texture. This process ensures that most of the vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidants found in avocados are preserved in the butter.
While pure avocado butter is made solely from avocados, some commercial versions might add other ingredients to enhance its consistency or shelf life. These could include other natural butters or oils, preservatives, or stabilizers. It's always recommended to check the ingredient list when purchasing.
How is avocado butter different from avocado oil?
Texture and Consistency
Avocado butter is a semi-solid or solid product that results from the whipping or mixing of avocado oil, giving it a buttery consistency. On the other hand, avocado oil is a liquid at room temperature.
Both avocado butter and oil are derived from the flesh of the avocado fruit. While avocado oil is extracted directly from the fruit's pulp, avocado butter is made by further refining and whipping this oil until it reaches a semi-solid state.
Avocado oil is often used for cooking, salad dressings, and in cosmetic formulations where a liquid medium is required. Avocado butter, with its thicker consistency, is more commonly used in skin and hair care products like creams, balms, and conditioners where a thicker consistency is beneficial.
Shelf Life and Storage
Due to its consistency, avocado butter may have a slightly longer shelf life than avocado oil, especially if it's mixed with stabilizers. However, both should be stored in a cool, dark place to maximize their longevity.
Both avocado butter and oil retain many of the nutritional benefits of the avocado fruit, including vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidants. However, the concentration of these nutrients may vary slightly depending on the processing methods used.
What are the skin and hair benefits of using avocado butter?
Deep Moisturization: Avocado butter is rich in fatty acids, providing deep hydration to the skin, making it soft and supple.
Nutrient-Rich: Packed with vitamins A, D, and E, it nourishes the skin, improving its overall health and texture.
Anti-Aging Properties: The antioxidants present help combat free radicals, reducing signs of aging and enhancing skin elasticity.
Healing Qualities: Promotes skin's natural healing, beneficial for minor cuts, abrasions, or sunburned skin.
Anti-Inflammatory: Contains compounds that can soothe irritated skin or inflammation.
Moisturizes and Conditions: Avocado butter can deeply condition hair, restoring shine and softness, especially to dry and damaged hair.
Scalp Nourishment: Its vitamins and nutrients can benefit the scalp, potentially reducing issues like dandruff or dryness.
Strengthens Hair: The fatty acids can strengthen hair strands, making them less prone to breakage.
Enhances Shine: Regular application can impart a natural shine to the hair, making it look healthy and vibrant.
How do I use avocado butter in homemade skincare products?
When incorporating avocado butter into homemade skincare products, always ensure it's pure and free from additives. Begin by melting or softening it to ease its integration into formulations.
Moisturizing Creams and Lotions
Melt the avocado butter in a double boiler and mix it with other oils or butters of your choice. Combine with water-based ingredients using an emulsifier. Essential oils can be added for fragrance and additional benefits.
Blend avocado butter with beeswax and other oils, such as coconut oil or almond oil, and melt them together. Once the mixture has cooled slightly, you can add essential oils or natural flavors before pouring into lip balm tubes or tins.
Whip softened avocado butter with other butters like shea or cocoa, and oils of your choice using a mixer until you achieve a fluffy consistency. Essential oils can be added for scent and added skincare benefits.
Mix a small amount of avocado butter with ingredients like honey, yogurt, or clay for a hydrating and nourishing face mask. Apply to the skin and let it sit for 15-20 minutes before rinsing off.
For handmade soaps, avocado butter can be incorporated into the oil phase. Ensure you run your recipe through a lye calculator to determine the correct amount of lye needed.
Always conduct a patch test when trying a new homemade skincare product to check for any allergic reactions.
Use a preservative if your homemade product contains water to prevent bacterial growth.
Store products made with avocado butter in a cool place to extend shelf life.
Is avocado butter comedogenic? Will it clog pores?
Every oil and butter has a comedogenic rating, which ranges from 0 (non-comedogenic) to 5 (highly comedogenic). Avocado butter has a comedogenic rating typically around 2 to 3. This means that while it's moderately low in terms of clogging pores, there's still a possibility for some individuals.
Whether or not avocado butter will clog your pores often depends on your specific skin type. Those with dry or mature skin might benefit from avocado butter without issues, while individuals with oily or acne-prone skin might need to use it more cautiously.
If you're concerned about comedogenicity, start by using avocado butter on a small patch of skin to observe any reactions.
Always ensure your avocado butter is pure and free from additives, which might affect its comedogenic properties.
Blending avocado butter with non-comedogenic oils or ingredients can potentially reduce the risk of clogged pores.
Regularly exfoliating and cleansing the skin can help in preventing the buildup that leads to clogged pores.
While avocado butter has numerous skin benefits, it's essential to use it in a manner that aligns with your skin's needs and sensitivities. It's always a good idea to consult with a dermatologist or skincare expert if you're unsure about introducing a new product into your routine.
How does avocado butter compare to other natural butters, like shea or cocoa butter?
Texture and Consistency
Avocado butter tends to have a softer and creamier texture compared to cocoa butter, which is harder and more brittle at room temperature. Shea butter, on the other hand, has a consistency that's somewhere in between, being pliable but not as soft as avocado butter.
All three butters have rich nutritional profiles. Avocado butter is packed with vitamins A, D, and E, along with essential fatty acids. Cocoa butter is rich in antioxidants and has a high fat content, while shea butter is known for its vitamins A, E, and F and its anti-inflammatory properties.
Uses and Applications
Avocado butter is popular in skincare products designed for deep moisturization, given its creamy texture. Cocoa butter is often found in products meant for drier skin types due to its ability to create a protective barrier on the skin's surface. Shea butter is versatile and can be used in a variety of products, from lotions to hair treatments, given its balanced consistency and nutrient profile.
As previously discussed, avocado butter has a comedogenic rating of around 2 to 3. Shea butter usually has a rating of 0 to 1, making it less likely to clog pores. Cocoa butter has a higher rating of about 4, which means it's more likely to be comedogenic for certain skin types.
Avocado butter has a mild, nutty scent. Cocoa butter is known for its distinct, chocolatey aroma, while shea butter has a somewhat earthy or nutty smell, which can vary based on its refinement level.
Each butter—avocado, cocoa, and shea—offers unique benefits and characteristics. The choice between them should be based on individual skin needs, desired consistency, and the specific purpose of the end product. Often, a combination of these butters can provide a synergistic effect, making the most of each butter's properties.
Where can I buy pure, unrefined avocado butter?
Many online platforms specialize in natural and organic products. Websites like Amazon, eBay, and Etsy often have various sellers offering pure, unrefined avocado butter. Always check customer reviews and seller ratings before purchasing.
Specialty Health Stores
Physical stores that focus on natural, organic, or health products might carry avocado butter. Chains like Whole Foods or local health food stores often have a selection of natural butters and oils.
Cosmetic Ingredient Suppliers
For those who are interested in DIY cosmetic formulations, suppliers such as Mountain Rose Herbs, Bramble Berry, or Bulk Apothecary might offer pure avocado butter as part of their product lineup.
Local farmers' markets might have vendors selling handmade or organic skincare products, and some might offer unrefined avocado butter or products containing it.
Tips for Purchasing
Always check the product label to ensure you're getting pure, unrefined avocado butter. Avoid products with additives or preservatives if you're aiming for the most natural product.
Ask the seller or manufacturer for a product's origin and processing methods to ensure its authenticity.
It's a good idea to purchase a small amount initially to test the product's quality and see if it meets your needs.
How should I store avocado butter to ensure it stays fresh?
Avoid Direct Sunlight
Direct sunlight can degrade the quality of avocado butter over time. It's best to store it in a cool, dark place, away from direct sunlight or sources of heat.
Keep in a Cool Environment
Avoid leaving avocado butter in hot places, like near a stove or in a car. Ideally, it should be stored at room temperature or slightly cooler. If your residence tends to be warm, consider storing it in the refrigerator. If refrigerated, it will harden but can be softened at room temperature or by gentle warming before use.
Use an Airtight Container
Exposure to air can lead to the butter becoming rancid. Store your avocado butter in an airtight container to limit its exposure to oxygen.
Always use clean utensils or hands when accessing your avocado butter to prevent introducing contaminants. It's best to scoop out the amount you need rather than touching the main supply with your fingers.
Monitor for Changes
Regularly check the butter's appearance, smell, and texture. If it starts to smell rancid, appears moldy, or the consistency changes drastically, it's best to discard it.
Consider Using Natural Preservatives (For DIY Products)
If you're using avocado butter in DIY skincare products, consider adding natural preservatives like Vitamin E or rosemary oil extract to extend shelf life, especially if the formulation contains water.
Label and Date
If transferring the butter to another container, or if you're making a product with it, always label and date it. This will help you keep track of its freshness over time.
Are there any potential allergic reactions or side effects of using avocado butter on the skin?
While avocado butter is generally safe for most people, it's possible for some individuals to develop an allergic reaction. Symptoms might include:
Redness or rash
Burning or stinging sensation
Avocado butter has a moderate comedogenic rating, meaning it might clog pores for some individuals, especially those with oily or acne-prone skin. This could potentially lead to breakouts or worsened acne for certain skin types.
If avocado butter is not pure or has been mixed with other ingredients, it could result in skin irritation or other unwanted reactions. Always ensure you're using high-quality, unrefined avocado butter, especially if applying directly to the skin.
Sensitivity with Oral Allergies
Individuals who have an oral allergy syndrome related to avocados might also be more susceptible to skin reactions when using avocado butter.
It's always advisable to conduct a patch test when trying a new product. Apply a small amount of avocado butter to a discrete area of skin and monitor for any adverse reactions for 24-48 hours.
If you have known allergies or are unsure about potential reactions, consult with a dermatologist or medical professional before using avocado butter on your skin.
How can I make my own avocado butter at home?
Fresh ripe avocados (2 medium-sized)
2 tablespoons of coconut oil (or another carrier oil of your choice like jojoba or almond oil)
1 tablespoon of shea or cocoa butter (optional, for added consistency)
Vitamin E oil (a few drops, for natural preservation)
Cut the avocados in half, remove the pit, and scoop out the flesh.
In a blender or food processor, blend the avocado flesh until smooth and creamy.
In a double boiler, gently melt the coconut oil and shea/cocoa butter (if you're using it).
Combine the melted oils with the blended avocado in the blender or food processor. Blend until all ingredients are thoroughly mixed.
Add a few drops of Vitamin E oil and blend again. This will act as a natural preservative and antioxidant, extending the shelf life of your homemade avocado butter.
Transfer the mixture to a clean container with a lid. Let it cool and solidify. If you want it to solidify faster, you can place it in the refrigerator.
Store your homemade avocado butter in a cool, dark place. If kept in the refrigerator, it can last up to a week or slightly longer. Always use clean hands or a utensil to scoop out the butter to avoid contamination.
This homemade avocado butter will have a different consistency than commercially prepared avocado butter. It will be more perishable due to the fresh avocado content, so be mindful of its shelf life and always check for any signs of spoilage before use.
What's the shelf life of avocado butter?
Commercially Prepared Avocado Butter
When avocado butter is commercially prepared and refined, it usually has a shelf life of 12 to 24 months when stored properly. This longer shelf life is due to the refining process, which removes impurities and certain components that might cause the butter to spoil more rapidly.
Homemade Avocado Butter
If you make your own avocado butter at home using fresh avocados, its shelf life will be significantly shorter. Typically, homemade avocado butter should be used within a week if stored in the refrigerator. It's crucial to keep homemade butter cool and to always check for any signs of spoilage, such as mold or an off smell, before use.
Storage Tips to Extend Shelf Life:
Store avocado butter in a cool, dark place, away from direct sunlight or heat sources.
Use clean hands or utensils when accessing the butter to avoid introducing contaminants.
If your avocado butter begins to smell rancid or has a change in color or texture, it's best to discard it.
Consider adding a few drops of Vitamin E oil to homemade butter as a natural preservative. It can help extend the butter's shelf life slightly by preventing oxidation.
Is avocado butter suitable for all skin types?
Avocado butter is generally suitable for most skin types due to its rich content of vitamins, antioxidants, and fatty acids. It's moisturizing and nourishing, making it beneficial for dry or mature skin.
Oily or Acne-Prone Skin
For those with oily or acne-prone skin, caution is advisable. Avocado butter has a moderate comedogenic rating, meaning it might clog pores for some individuals. This could potentially lead to breakouts or worsened acne for certain skin types.
Those with sensitive skin should always patch-test any new product, including avocado butter, before full application. While avocado butter is generally gentle, everyone's skin is unique, and reactions can occur.
It's possible, though rare, for some individuals to be allergic to components found in avocados and, by extension, avocado butter. Symptoms of an allergic reaction might include redness, itching, swelling, or a burning sensation. It's always a good practice to conduct a patch test when introducing any new skincare product.
While avocado butter offers numerous benefits for the skin and is generally suitable for a wide range of skin types, individual reactions can vary. Always consider your unique skin needs and concerns when choosing skincare products.
How does avocado butter impact the environment in terms of its production and sourcing?
Avocado farming, especially in regions that aren't traditionally suitable for its cultivation, can require significant amounts of water. In certain areas, this intensive water use has led to concerns about depleting local water resources, potentially harming ecosystems and communities that depend on them.
In some countries, there has been an increase in illegal logging to clear land for avocado farms. This deforestation affects native species, biodiversity, and contributes to climate change.
Pesticides and Chemicals
Non-organic avocado farms may use pesticides and chemicals that can be harmful to the environment, potentially contaminating local water sources and harming beneficial insects.
The transportation of avocados (and by extension, avocado products) can lead to a significant carbon footprint, especially when transported over long distances or from countries where they are not natively grown.
The commercial demand for avocados can lead to monoculture farming practices, where only one type of crop (in this case, avocado) is cultivated extensively. Monoculture can make ecosystems more vulnerable to pests and diseases and reduce biodiversity.
While the avocado boom has benefited many farmers economically, it has also led to some negative socio-economic implications. For instance, in some regions, there have been reports of "avocado cartels" controlling the production and sale, leading to conflicts and inequality.
There is a growing movement towards sustainable and responsible avocado farming. Organic farming, water-saving techniques, and local sourcing can mitigate many of the negative environmental impacts. When buying avocado products, including avocado butter, looking for certifications or labels indicating sustainable practices can make a difference.
Who is Soapgoods?
We are proud to present a diverse and extensive selection of soap making supplies including soap molds as well as melt and pour soap bases. Are you looking for something unique, something hard to find? Wondering Where to buy Witch Hazel Distillate - Alcohol Free? We are a fantastic source!
We carry it all and many other fantastic but hard to find items at great wholesale prices, we are the one-stop-shop, you can find everything you need here, even bulk Xanthan Gum Right here at Soapgoods
We know you have choices, that's why we work harder, providing better quality, faster shipping and a wide selection of items in practical sizes for any application. When you need to make a purchase and need it delivered quickly, look to us to provide you the service you need. We even have Wholesale Yogurt Powder, in small and large builds sizes, either way, you can get our best direct to consumer pricing. Plus we ship it out the next business days. and will ship the next business day.
Where else can you do all your shopping in one place? When you need to make a purchase and get it delivered quickly. Buy Zinc Oxide Powder? Right here
When you are looking for quality personal care products, cosmetics and soap making supplies, be sure to visit our online store for Acacia Gum Enjoy our premium quality ingredients and super fast shipping times.
Read our Real Reviews from Google and Bizrate
100% Real Reviews (we cannot edit, create or delete reviews) From Google, Click here -> Real SoapGoods Reviews
See more Real Reviews (we cannot edit, create or delete reviews) from Third Party Watchdog Bizrate Real SoapGoods Reviews (Click Here and Scroll Down)
Read hundreds of real testimonials from over a decade of service. SoapGoods Testimonials.
How Fast Can I get it?
We Guarantee Your order ships out the same or next business day! This means in the South East you will have your order in 1 to 3 business days, in the North East normally 3 to 4 days and in the West normally 4 to 5 days. For full details on shipping and processing times please see our expected delivery times.
These times are based on business days, not including weekends or holidays.
FedEx Delivery Map
USPS Delivery Map
Typical Delivery Times to Major US Cities
|Total Business Days +1 / -1
|Alabama (AL) - Montgomery, Birmingham
|Alaska (AK) - Juneau, Anchorage
|Arizona (AZ) - Phoenix, Tucson
|Arkansas (AR) - Little Rock, Fayetteville
|California (CA) - Sacramento, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Diego, Sacramento, San Jose
|Colorado (CO) - Denver, Colorado Springs
|Connecticut (CT) - Hartford, New Haven
|Delaware (DE) - Dover, Wilmington, Newark
|Florida (FL) - Tallahassee, Orlando, Miami, Jacksonville, Tampa, Destin
|Georgia (GA) - Atlanta, Savannah, Augusta, Athens
|Hawaii (HI) - Honolulu, Kailua
|Idaho (ID) - Boise, Coeur d'Alene
|Illinois (IL) - Springfield, Chicago, Peoria, Rockford
|Indiana (IN) - Indianapolis, Fort Wayne
|Iowa (IA) - Des Moines, Cedar Rapids
|Kansas (KS) - Topeka, Wichita, Kansas City
|Kentucky (KY) - Frankfort, Louisville, Lexington
|Louisiana (LA) - Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Lafayette
|Maine (ME) - Augusta, Portland, Bangor
|Maryland (MD) - Annapolis, Baltimore
|Massachusetts (MA) - Boston, Cambridge, Worcester
|Michigan (MI) - Lansing, Detroit, Grand Rapids
|Minnesota (MN) - St. Paul, Minneapolis, Duluth
|Mississippi (MS) - Jackson, Biloxi, Hattiesburg
|Missouri (MO) - Jefferson City, St Louis, Kansas City
|Montana (MT) - Helena, Billings
|Nebraska (NE) - Lincoln, Omaha
|Nevada (NV) - Carson City, Las Vegas, Reno
|New Hampshire (NH) - Concord, Manchester, Portsmouth
|New Jersey (NJ) - Trenton, Newark, Jersey City
|New Mexico (NM) - Santa Fe, Alburquerque
|New York (NY) - Albany, New York, Rochester, Buffalo, Albany, Syracuse, Niagara Falls, Ithaca
|North Carolina (NC) - Raleigh, Charlotte
|North Dakota (ND) - Bismarck, Fargo
|Ohio (OH) - Columbus, Cleveland, Cincinnati
|Oklahoma (OK) - Oklahoma City, Fairview,
|Oregon (OR) - Salem, Portland, Eugene
|Pennsylvania (PA) - Harrisburg, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh
|Rhode Island (RI) - Providence, Newport
|South Carolina (SC) - Columbia, Charleston
|South Dakota (SD) - Pierre, Sioux Falls, Rapid City
|Tennessee (TN) - Nashville, Memphis
|Texas (TX) - Austin, Houston, Dallas
|Utah (UT) - Salt Lake City, St. George
|Vermont (VT) - Montpelier, Burlington
|Virginia (VA) - Richmond, Virginia Beach
|Washington (WA) - Olympia, Seattle, Vancouver, Spokane
|West Virginia (WV) - Charleston, Morgantown
|Wisconsin (WI) - Madison, Milwaukee
|Wyoming (WY) - Cheyenne, Jackson